Sunday, September 28, 2014

Blog Post #6

What can we learn from Anthony Capps?

What CAN we learn from Anthony Capps's conversations with Dr. Strange? Apparently, we can learn a great deal, or at least I surely did. Anthony and Dr. Strange covered a variety of subjects: Project Based Learning, iCurio, Discovery Ed, tips for teachers, and correctly utilizing technology.

Project Based Learning:

In the videos Project Based Learning Part 1 and Part 2 , I discovered many insights to Project Based Learning. Projects are not something to be done at the end of a lesson to show what children learn. Projects are an approach to learning. In Project Based Learning, students can own their own learning and create while they are discovering. I learned how to approach designing projects so that they will be productive, good projects. Projects must motivate, be relevant, involve community, and meet state standards. Reflection and revising is also key to good projects. Everything is not going to go as planned when doing some projects, but in order to not limit students, never underestimate them! When you give students a chance, they will occasionally go far beyond your expectations. Collaboration is hard for people, but if we incorporate it in our teachings, it can only get easier with practice. In Project Based Learning, students will always know that what they are doing has meaning.

iCurio & Discovery Ed:

iCurio logo
iCurio is an awesome online tool that I had never heard of. It is an ingenious idea that allows children to do online web searches through filtered websites. Not only is it great for research, it teaches virtual organization through its bookmarking features. It could be useful for all grade levels. Discovery Ed helps students to further their research as well as helping teachers bring their lessons to life. I had also never heard of this tool. Because people remember more of what they hear and see, this tool provides illustrations and expert videos.


In the video Anthony-Strange Tips for Teachers, together Dr. Strange and Anthony compile a few great tips for new teachers. Of course, we as teachers must be learners. As we continue through EDM, I believe this more and more. Teachers can never have all of the answers nor think that they do know everything! Teaching also becomes a way of life, not just a career. Surprises also happen, so teachers must be willing to adjust their plans. We also must be able to make sure that we are not leaving any children behind in our teaching. Everyone must be actively engaged. Students must also be able to reflect and share their projects.


technology on a chalkboard
In Use Tech, Don't Teach It, it is obvious, our world is now staunchly planted in technology. There is no refusing it anymore. We must embrace technology, and this idea is a new one to me. I had never thought about purposefully using technology instead of teaching it. Students know how to use technology now. They no longer need to learn how to use anything. Technology is like a second language to most all children. In order to utilize technology, I see how to incorporate and design assignments around using technology. Most importantly, always do the assignments before you introduce them to your students. This way, you will have a decent understanding of the questions the students ask when they do the project.

Additional Thoughts:

In this last video, Anthony gave me good insights into what a lesson plan should be. I have not been introduced to lessons plans much yet, as this is my first semester in the College of Education. When preparing my future plans, I am going to definitely keep these ideas in mind.

Regardless of the specific subjects of these videos, all of them have one thing in common: building essential 21st century skills!

Project #8

Wednesday, September 24, 2014

C4K Summary for September

September 9-14


Joseph is a year seven student at Pt England School in Auckland, New Zealand. In his first post, Joseph told of his trip to Ambury Farm. His literary group was taken to the farm where they got to see sheep, chickens, cows, and a bull. They even got to see the cows being milked. He also learned that the brown cows are Friesian cows, and the black cows are Jersey cows. In my comment to Joseph, I told him who I am and where I attend school. I find it awesome that they got to go to a farm and experience the animals. I am from a farming community, so I was raised around many of the animals he got to see. My grandparents had chickens throughout my childhood, and they even once had a bull. He even taught me something new. I had no idea that those were two types of cows! I am looking forward to reading more of what he and his classmates learn throughout this year.

September 15-21


poetry with person reading under a treeZakiah is in Mrs. Schraml's fifth grade class in Independence, Ohio. Zakiah's blog post was a poem she had written about herself. She wrote about her personality, her hobbies, her family, and her interests. I told Zakiah that her post was a great blog post. I always enjoyed writing poems in my classes in school. They really are hard to come up with sometimes, but she did a great job! It’s
wonderful that she loves her family and likes to help others. Those two things are very important in life. I could also tell she's very creative, and I asked her what type jewelry do she likes best, since liking jewelry was part of her poem. Lastly, I told her I look forward to reading more from her and her classmates.


Kamar is part of Madame Thomas's senior class in Virginia. Kamar and several of the other students were assigned to write about how they would like to leave their mark on the world. Kamar admitted that when they thought about it, he, to be honest, really did not know how to make his mark on the world. My response to Kamar was simple. I told him that to be honest, I believe that none of us truly know how we’re going to make our mark on this world, but we all wish to leave some legacy behind us. The great thing is, we all have time to figure it out, and sometimes, achievements or opportunities that we would have never dreamed of present themselves. Life if full of possibilities. If he is great at helping, then pursue that. That’s one of the reasons I decided to major in education. His mark will be a product of his personality and passions, whatever he decides he wants to do, he should enjoy every moment of it.

September 22-28

Garret F:

hard work beats talent when talent fails to work hardGarret is a part of Ms. Allison Freitag's class at Iowa High School. Ms. Freitag assigned her class to write about which is more important, talent or hard work. Garret believes that it is hardwork that is the more important one of the two, because hard work is about setting goals and achieving them.
Garret does still believe that talent is important. I told Garret that I believe that hard work and talent do not have to oppose one another. They are complimentary to one another. Talent is something that you are naturally good at and usually provides a hobby that you enjoy doing. It is through hard work
that you can make something out of your talents. If someone’s talent is playing a musical instrument, then it is through hard work that they take that talent to the next level. Both talent and hard work are important in life; however, even if you don’t exactly have the talent for something, you should still work hard at it. Thus, in a way, hard work is more important, because whether you love or hate to do something, you should always work hard at it and do your best.

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Project #3 Presentation

Project #7 Part 1

This Is My Sentence...

This Is My Passion...

Blog Post #5 Part 1

Personal Learning Network WordwebPersonal Learning Networks (PLNs):

PLN, just another acronym we can add to our bag of tricks in education. They sound fun don't they? Actually, I thought building a personal learning network sounded quite scary. I didn't know what one was much less how to build one! The name is self-explanatory, right? It's a network that you learn in? How in the world would you even begin to look for this network? Well, thank goodness for the internet, not only is it one place that these networks can be built, but it is also provided the amazing resources for me to figure out what in the world this idea of a PLN is. Teaching in the twenty-first century really has begun taking on a whole new meaning for me as I began my search through the web of networks out there.

Blooming flowers with social media symbols as the centersAccording to Tim Wilhemus in Building Your Personal Learning Network, "A Personal Learning Network (PLN) is an extension of the self that enables a learner to harness the knowledge and experiences of many voices through a collaborative connection that may take many forms. Our PLNs represent all of the people with whom we've created a social connection, physically or virtually, and upon whom we can call to enhance our learning." Creating PLNs can help to break down the educational isolations of both teachers and students! According to Dr. Strange in Developing a Personal Learning Network, the information for creating a PLN is everywhere. Just as we once went to the library to do research, we now look to the clouds to find information. No, I don't mean start looking at the sky hoping the answers will rain down on you! Look to the wonderful clouds others before yourself have formed on the internet.

Five Reasons Why Educators Should Network by Tanya Rascorla

1. To Learn With Others Teachers: 
Teachers do not know everything and cannot educate their students alone.

2. To Serve Your Students:
Networks provide ways to bounce ideas and make sure you are being the best teacher you can be.

3. To Access A Dynamic Resource:
Within a network, teachers can see what others are doing to improve what they are doing.

4. To Extend Your Learning Base:
When we graduate, we may have a working knowledge of the classroom, but we do not have hardly   as much experience as most all of the teachers out there in PLNs! Find them and utilize their experience.

5. To Stay Engaged In Education:
If we stop learning, we can become burnt out on teaching. Other teachers can help you stay inspired. Personal learning networks should always start with questions! They should not be something we do, but they should how we think. We should want to grow our networks with each new question that comes to mind.

Colorful network of figures who are speaking to each other
In PLN- Michael Fawcett Offers His Insight, Michael offers us an interesting view on PLNs. To him, they are a network of teachers and educators that we can utilize to draw us out of our established comfort zones into new areas and ideas. They give teachers and students opportunities to collaborate and connect that are not there otherwise. Through them we are able to attend workshops across the world and participate in them through video conferences, chats, and twitter. The teachers are out there waiting for us to join in with them with our networks! Our use of an substantive PLN will encourage our students to build and grow their own.

Personal Learning Networks aren't just for teachers. In Personal Learning Networks are Virtual Lockers for Schoolkids, Vicki Davis says, "Constructing a PLN is the essential skill that moves my students into the driver's seat of their own learning." Assessing and analyzing information skills are necessary for the amount of knowledge we have access to. Having the skill of creating a PLN is an organizational skill that will help kids throughout their futures. The PLN is never complete!" This is so important. The PLN is always changing and evolving! 

"It is like a stream. You can dip into it, and it keeps flowing. You can get into it, and it keeps on flowing. And you can flow with it."--Dr. Strange

I have begun to create and build my own PLN using Symbaloo. My page includes links to many blogs as well as twitter. I also have links to many tools that I believe will be useful in growing my network. Right now, I have been exploring Twitter and the blogosphere. My explorations have been quite interesting and exciting, but I had no real grasp on what I was doing. I was creating a PLN without even realizing it!
My first edition to my PLN was a link to my Twitter so I can continue following the EDM staff and others in the Education College. Next added was my first C4T's blog and his Twitter, and I am going to be adding each one of my new C4T teachers as I am assigned to them. I also hope to find many more blogs on my own as I continue to explore, and hopefully I will also be able to add learn about and add new tools to further my exploring. I plan on digging deep into some of Dr. Strange's own material in his educational PLN that he listed in Developing A Personal Learning Network. I am also going to delve into his other two examples of PLNs, MacIntosh and Photography, as those are two of my interests also.

Altogether, I am going to remember that PLNs stem from questions, and I should grow those questions into my own Personal Learning Network.

Sunday, September 14, 2014

Blog Post #4

Asking Questions: What questions do we ask? How do we ask?

What do we need to know about asking questions to be an effective teacher?

The Goal of a Question
typography question mark made of commonly asked questions
According to Ben Johnson on The Right Way to Ask Questions in The Classroom, teachers do not know everything and student are not always ignorant. In the questioning process, we expect students to ask questions if they are not understanding the material; however, sometimes students don't even realize that they do not understand! I have been on this side of the questioning process too many times to not agree with that statement. Students don't understand that they don't understand, or many times some students are embarrassed to ask questions in front of their classmates. The Right Question Institute believes that strong critical thinking skills are fostered by the questions that are asked in the classroom. Unfortunately, the process to asking good questions is rarely taught. Teachers and students both should now how to ask questions. In Three Ways to Ask Better Questions in the Classroom, Maryellen Weimer says, "Good questions make students think, they encourage participation and I think they improve the caliber of the answers students give and the questions they ask."

Open Ended Vs. Close Ended

When questions are asked that do not provoke critical or thoughtful responses, the answers tend to be exactly what we would expect, dull and shallow. The videos Asking Better Questions in the Classroom and Open Ended Questions discuss two types of questions, one which promotes thought and one that does not. These two types of questions can be categorized into close ended questions and open ended questions.

pencil writing the word why
Close Ended Questions- When a question is close ended, it is typically structured so that it almost
answers itself. Students do not have to give much thought to these questions. One word answers typically suffice for these. Close ended questions typically take the form of asking why, what, or where.

Open Ended Questions- When a questions is open ended, it leaves the student to form the answer to the question. Students must respond and think about the question before they can answer it. Open ended questions can be phrased in ways such as for what reasons, in what ways, describe in detail, or generate a list.

Three Approaches to Bettering Questions:  according to Maryellen Weimer in Three Ways to Ask Better Questions in the Classroom

1. Prepare
Preparing questions will keep the students from getting confused. When questions are not prepared, sometimes they do not come across correctly. In order to maximize learning, questions should be refined as you ask them. Making notes on what worked and what didn't further optimizes the questioning process for future classes. When teachers actively work on improving their questions, it can show students the importance of the questioning process.

2. Play
Playing with questions promotes the students to think about them. Ask a question at the beginning of class and leave it unanswered for a while. Students can come up with marvelous answers if just given the time and encouragement to think.

3. Preserve
Teachers should preserve not only their own questions but also the questions of their students. The questions asked by the teacher should be revised and saved, and those that did not work should be trashed or tried again in a different form. The most important part of preservation is saving the questions of students. Questions asked by students are questions about something the student realized they did not understand. It also shows the students that teachers value what their students say, especially if you get the student to write the question down so you can keep it.

Simple, Effective Approach

We have seen what questions to ask, but how do we ask them? In my experience, most teachers just ask a question and wait for sometime to answer, but what is the most effective way to ask questions? Many times teachers get in the habit of always asking questions the same way or calling on the same children to answer those questions. When the students know who is going to be asked to answer, many students tune out the question and never give any thought to an answer. There are many simple, effective approaches to asking questions that will promote the entire class to think. One of these approaches is asking open questions, but the students need to know that they are all expected
What you think, you become
to formulate an answer. The video Questioning Styles and Strategies shows a combination of different questioning methods, each being highly effective. Changing how you go about getting an answer each time provides the classroom with just enough spontaneity to show the students that all of them are expected to analyze the question to discover an answer. One example described in The Right Way to Ask Questions in The Classroom includes asking a question, pausing a few seconds, and then calling on someone to answer. Once that child has answered, call on them to answer again at some point. This way students will know that once they have answered their turn is not over; therefore, they cannot zone out and stop thinking of answers.

Responding Effectively

respond logo with outline of a man with a red heartWhen it comes to questioning, last but definitely not least is knowing how to respond to your own questions as well as responding to student questions. Asking Questions to Improve Learning emphasizes this importance. Key goals when responding to questions are to never answer your own questions, never interrupt, show interest when students respond, and to point out the wrong or weak areas in a response while leading the student into the right answer. Altogether, teachers should lead their students to appreciate the questioning process by the way they ask and respond to questions. Questions should never hinder learning or deter children from interest, but they should only further the learning process.

Questions Are More Important Than Answers!

Project #15

Search Engines

With the power and far reaching arms of Google these days, it is hard to imagine using any other search engine on a regular basis. Even finding different search engines seemed to be an impossible task. I actually used Google to find other search engines mentioned in this post! Surprisingly, I did find some very intriguing search engines.

1. WoW Search

WoW Search home pageWoW Search gives the user many options when it comes to what websites they want to search. With WoW, you can search human edited websites, other search engines, or reference pages, all from one simple, easy search page. This would make a wonderful home screen for an internet browser if you are prone to search often. I especially like the reference function, since I am often searching for the meaning of words and their synonyms. The layout is very user friendly, but unfortunately this search engine does not do anything special that other engines cannot do.

2. IceRocket

IceRocket home pageIceRocket is an Internet search engine specializing in searching social media. This website allows you to search blogs, twitter, facebook, or all three at the same time. This is wonderful for those of us who are learning about utilizing technology in new forms to further education. Being able to search social media easily without having to navigate unrelated pages that most search engines such as Google include is an absolute blessing. This would give us easy access to new education blogs to read. Plus, you can search key terms, blogs from a specific author, or blogs on a specific page. I am most definitely going to be using this in the future!

3. ChaCha

ChaCha home page
ChaCha is an Internet and human lead search engine. This engine can be accessed by text message, internet, or a mobile app. Although it seems appealing to be able to search something and get a response from a human, sometimes they do not provide enough information or can be unreliable. For those who enjoy getting information directly from human interaction, this search engine has great use. I believe that this engine was at its best when cell phones did not have ready access to a user friendly internet interface, it was wonderful to be able to text questions and get answers texted back, but now that most all mobile phones have user friendly internet access; therefore, ChaCha has stopped offering this service and has lost a substantial portion of its edge.

4. Blekko

Blekko home pageAccording to Blekko's about page on their website, "At Blekko, our mission is to create a differentiated search experience by delivering high quality, curated results and organizing content into categories. Our sophisticated search technology powers our suite of products – a web search engine, mobile app, and social news platform." Blekko is great in its organization. When a term or phrase is searched, the results are categorized into domains on the left hand side of them page. These domains include terms such as top results, latest, jobs, music, and lyrics. Blekko has the potential to rival Google, but it does not provide many of the search services such as videos, news, books, and shopping. I still enjoyed playing around with it and will definitely experiment with it some more.

5. DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo home page
According to DuckDuckGo's website, their mission is simple. They provide a searching service without tracking the user. They also pride themselves on fewer adds and reduced spam to provide a "clutter-free" look. This website also provides only one page of results, so it is a one click search engine. Like many other apps today, it continues to load results at the bottom of the page. This search engine does include other areas to search such as videos and news. While this could be appealing to some people through their no tracing policy, it was not my favorite search engine to use; however, I did enjoy the one page search results.

6. Yippy

Yippy home page
Yippy is an Internet search engine that provides clusters of results. Related search results are filtered under the domains of cloud, sources, sites, and time. You can also browse by web, blogs, news, wikipedia, and more. This is actually quite an interesting take on categorizing searches. This would be great for deep searches that require refining to produce the results you want. Although I find this approach interesting, I do not foresee myself using it much, but who knows? Maybe it will come in handy for someone else!

7. Webopedia

Webopedia home page
According to Webopedia's website, "Webopedia is an online tech dictionary for IT professionals and educators, providing definitions to words, phrases and abbreviations related to computing and information technology. Our goal is to provide easy-to-understand definitions, avoiding the use of heavy jargon when possible so that the site is accessible to users with a wide range of computer knowledge." In this ever-changing technological world, this online collective knowledge of tech terms is great for those of us who aren't as tech savvy as we would like to be. I am constantly confused by technical terms. This website provides easy to understand definitions in a user friendly layout. Webopedia's definitions are also constantly updated as the technological world changes, and new words are added every day. This website is definitely going to fulfill its potential in my life. 

8. WolframAlpha

WolframAlpha home page
WolframAlpha blows my mind. It is a computational knowledge engine, meaning it computes systematic knowledge into one easily accessible form. Rather than providing related web pages as the answers to search terms, this website compiles the answers to the terms into one web page; therefore, this website appears to be more geared towards producing facts and computations of mathematical or scientific problems than towards general how to questions or finding abstract information. Still, if I need the facts about a subject or to do a computation, I am forever turning to WolframAlpha. I am only scared that one day this website's math and science features will deter students from truly learning the process of solving problems for themselves. Altogether, this computational knowledge engine has clear advantages and more than enough potential to be one of the best engines out there.



John Spencer is a teacher and writer who loves to help his students find their voices. John's blog is entitled Education Rethink. On September 4th, John made the post You Will Make Enemies. In this post, John shares a life lesson that he wants his boys to learn as they are growing up. John argues that no matter what we do in life, there will always be people who dislike us. Yes, it could be our fault that they don't like us, but sometimes people just don't like you for no reason at all. At the beginning of his teaching career, John thought that if he minded his own business and avoided conflict then he would not make any enemies. He thought he was his own biggest critic, but he found out he couldn't have been
more wrong.
Love Your Enemies on an orange Watercolor Background
John found that those horrible things we think about ourselves sometimes are on someone's mind more often than they are on our own. Whether it be your personality, your weaknesses, your likes, or you dislikes, someone will always be there to hate you worse than you could ever hate yourself, but being caught off-guard by it is the worst part of it all. In conclusion John poses the questions, "Will you let them define your story? Will it push you to become someone you are not? Will you engage in slander? Will it push you to seek out revenge? Or will you choose to love them even when you don’t feel like it?" When it all comes down to it, what will we choose?

C4T#1, comment 1

I began my comment explaining to John who I am, where I'm from, and why I'm commenting on his blog. I feel that this blog was truly a great piece of advice from an experienced teacher and agree that we truly never know how we are seen in other peoples' eyes. In my personal experience, I have had several teachers act this way towards not only other teachers but also to their students. Just because some people makes one big mistake, they are branded as trouble for the rest of their high school careers. I also told him how intriguing I find his ending questions, especially "Will you let them define your story?". This is a wonderful post to keep in mind as I begin my journey to become a teacher. I also left him a link to my blog and the class's blog.


doodle around the phrase process not productIn John's last blog, The Upside of Wasting Time, he discusses the fact that the world needs more "time wasters." No, the world does not need to waste time, but wasting time means being encouraged to explore and create in areas that you are interesting. John doodled and wrote throughout his childhood, and now that is exactly what he is doing with his life. Many times, our childhood escapes develop practical applications in our lives, so we should not discourage creative children. Yes, sometimes it bothers us when a child is not paying attention because he or she is daydreaming, doodling, or humming, but classroom should not just be about practical, utilitarian learning. Classrooms should also involve fun, creative ways to accomplish the standards and expectations of the school.

C4T#1, comment 2 

John could not be more right on this subject! Individuals need to realize that wasting time definitely has its perks. It is the activities and hobbies that we do and keep that make us who we are. As a child, I always felt so pushed to stick to my schoolwork and and think about the future that I usually felt guilty anytime I started wasting time on something I liked to do; however, as I read his post, I realized it was the things I enjoyed doing as a child that I am pursing now in my life. Kids need to be encouraged to do what they love and to focus on other subjects besides just the subjects that schools tell them they're supposed to learn. Teachers should provide creative outlets for students and encourage them to think for themselves. In essence, school standards sometimes need to be associated more with fun and less with utilitarian purpose.

Sunday, September 7, 2014

Blog Post #3

How Can You Provide Meaningful Feedback to Your Peers?

What is Peer Editing?

In order to define what peer editing is, we must first define the individual words in the phrase. According to nrpatric's video Peer Editing, the word peer means "someone your own age", and editing means "making suggestions, comments, compliments, and changes to writing." What does it mean when we combine these two words into the phrase peer editing? The video tells us that it means "working with someone your own age to help improve, revise, and edit his or her writing."

Stick man with megaphone shouting to his peers
Yes, this seems like a pretty general, simple concept. Most all of us have peer edited something at some point in time, whether we have been assigned to or not, and I'm sure we have all had someone peer edit something of our own. Peer editing makes us feel more secure about our work. If it's correct, then there is someone else that agrees with you. If it's wrong, then there is someone to catch your mistakes. Teamwork is taught to children at a very young age, so why not use that teamwork to aid you and your classes? No, I don't mean pair up to swap test answers, but pairing up to peer edit can not only help your partner earn a better grade, it can also improve your own overall writing skills by seeing what others do well and the mistakes others make . So, we may all know how peer editing is supposed to work, you'll check my paper and I'll check yours, but what are we checking? How do know where to start?

Steps to Peer Editing
Both the video Peer Editing by npratric and the slideshow Tutorial Peer Editing by Adriana Zardini present three steps to peer editing.

1. Compliments
When peer editing, start with compliments. This means to state what the person did well. If the person for whom you are peer editing feels as if you are just tearing them down with the mistakes they made, they won't want to continue improving their writing. Rather, it is more than likely that they will just want to give up.

2. Suggestions
Giving suggestions means telling your peer editing partner what could have been done better. What they did may not have been wrong, but sometimes there is a better way to express those ideas. Topics such as word choice, organization, and amount of details could all be improved through suggestions; however, you must always be extremely specific when giving suggestions. If something needs to be fixed, tell your partner exactly what it is.

3. Corrections
Corrections are also specific things that need to be fixed, but corrections should be made about punctuation, grammar, spelling, and other word errors.

Bring Them All Together

 Orange watercolor background with stay positive written on top
Bring all three of these steps together and we get the perfect formula for peer editing! Peer editing is not meant to hurt feelings or undermine motivations. The task of peer editing is to improve writing skills through positive feedback. Focus on those last two words, positive feedback. POSITIVE. The most important concept of the entire peer editing process can be found in that word. Stay positive under all circumstances, whether it be in giving compliments, suggestions, and corrections or in receiving these things. No one likes a mean, overbearing peer editor, but no one likes a sore writer either. To avoid both cases, peer editing should be kept a positive process by both parties. We are here to help one another! This brings us around to our next subject, peer editing mistakes.


In the adorable video Writing Peer Review Top Ten Mistakes, several children discuss and enact the top ten mistakes that can be made when peer editing by giving those mistakes names. These names encompass the general idea of each mistake:
  • Picky Patty 
  • Whatever William 
  • Social Sammy 
  • Jean the Generalizer 
  • Mean Margaret 
  • Loud Larry 
  • Pushy Paula 
  • Off-Task Oliver 
  • Speedy Sandy 
  • Defensive Dave


After looking at these videos and slideshow, I feel as if I am ready to begin the peer editing process with confidence. Before, I never knew where to start or how to provide advice that was appropriate without feeling mean about it; however, I have learned that there is no need to feel mean. Peer editing is all about bettering yourself and your partner. If you both stay on task, stay positive, and are specific, each of you should feel motivated to change and do better. The three steps provide an easy way to give meaningful feedback each and every time!

Remember: Stay Positive, Be Specific, and Follow All Three Steps!